5G , the new generation of mobile broadband communications networks, continues to be developed for an expected availability at the end of this decade, giving solution to the explosion of demand for communications, services and mobile applications that are expected. advantages of 5G are immense .
In the age of mobility, connectivity is a fundamental characteristic for users and professionals. If for work at desktops the connectivity is solved with wired Ethernet networks, the wireless communications technologies that are on the market and those that are being developed, guarantee the capacity, performance and security of a permanent connection to the Internet.
5G has as its centerpiece powerful and flexible networks that will connect everything to everything and everything to everyone, making possible a new generation of experiences in all sectors, including autonomous driving, smart cities, the Internet of Things , the era of machines, wearables and of course in mobile computing.
From 1G to 5G
The popularization of mobile phones without the standardization, improvement and evolution of the protocols for communications networks and their support by the operators would have been impossible . Thus, after the first communications via radio waves with a frequency band below 600 kHz, the later ones in AM and FM, the services of Bell and Ericsson in the 50s and 60s, came that first call of 1973 that popularized everything the sector. advantages of 5G are immense .
Although the first call was made on April 3, 1973, it was not until 1979 that Japan became the first country to have cell phone service, while Europe arrived in the Scandinavian countries in 1981 and the United States enabled the service commercial in 1983 with an AT & T network that precisely designed the receiver of the first call and Cooper rival, Joel Engel.
The first 1G generation was the responsibility of Ericcson with the NMT system and it continued to use analog channels. In 1986, the company modernized the system operating at higher frequencies of 900 MHz enabling service for a greater number of users. In addition to the NMT, in the 1980s other mobile telephony systems AMPS and TACS were developed, used in Spain under the commercial name of MoviLine.
The second 2G generation arrived in the 90s with systems such as GSM , IS-136, iDEN and IS-95. GSm was the most relevant development since it was the European standard for digital mobile telephony. The project involved 26 European telecommunications companies and in 1992 the first European networks of GSM-900 and the first GSM mobile phones were launched. Besides in Europe, GSM has also ended up being imposed in Asia, Latin America, Oceania and a part of North America. It is estimated at 3,000 million users.
The need for higher data transmission speeds and greater capabilities that allowed new services gave way to the third generation 3G , but not before going through the 2.5G provided by the GPRS. The European standard is UMTS based on W-CDMA technology and is managed by the 3GPP organization, which is also responsible for GSM, GPRS and EDGE.
The fourth generation or 4G succeeds the 2G and 3G technologies and offers, among other improvements, greater security and quality of service (QoS), together with access speeds much higher than the previous ones, higher than 100 Mbit / s in movement and 1 Gbit / s at rest. It is based entirely on the IP protocol, being a system of systems and a network of networks, which is achieved thanks to the convergence between wired and wireless networks. The LTE standard is the most widespread, although not the only one existing.
Successor of the current 4G, the main advance of the fifth generation of this mobile technology will be a spectacular increase in performance with theoretical speeds of data transfer in descent of 10 Gbps. A big improvement compared to the 75 Mbps of the current 4G-LTE and a performance that would pulverize the Wi-Fi networks and even surpass many current wired networks. advantages of 5G are immense .
The improvement in latency will also be notable . 5G will be built to handle all types of traffic with extremely low latency, ideal for powering portable technologies, smart cars or home devices that will come under the Internet of Things. It is expected that the end-to-end latency falls below 1 millisecond allowing new technologies and applications that simply are not possible with the current 4G.
Powerful and agile networks can also route network traffic intelligently to prioritize security- critical devices , such as autonomous driving cars and wearable medical devices. In geographical areas where the connected infrastructure is not as fast or reliable as needed, 5G technology also offers a world of possibilities not currently available.
The big companies in the sector have been creating test networks and prototypes capable of supporting 5G networks for some time. The Swedish company Ericsson managed last year to achieve real 5 Gbps speeds using the standard prior to the definition of the 5G protocol. Huawei and NTT Docomo have reached peak speeds of 3.6 Gbps, well above what is achieved with 4G and 36 times greater than the 100 Mbps connections offered by fiber optics. Another of the big ones, Samsung, has successfully tested 5G technologies with speeds of 1 Gbps. advantages of 5G are immense .
Project Skybender is the name of one of the new technological adventures of Google, with which the giant of Mountain View tries to offer connections to Internet 5G using drones that are powered by solar energy, manufactured by Titan Aerospace. For its part, Intel announced the first global 5G modem in the industry. A chip that will allow companies around the world to develop and implement 5G solutions early , accelerating the development of devices with 5G capacity.